The ancient Roman's did indeed swear, not only oaths, but also cuss words. I'm sure they still do today, though not in the same way as they did of old as noted in this article.
according to the liked post:
Interestingly, many of these Roman swears weren't passed down to English. The Latin cunnus isn't even the predecessor of our see-you-next-Tuesday. "Latin usually gives us our proper medical terms for immodest parts of the body-- vagina and penis, for example," Mohr writes. "Not our primary obscenities."